Source: (1993) In: L. Atkinson and S.-A. Gerull (eds.), National Conference on Juvenile Justice. Conference Proceedings No. 22, Canberra, AUS: Australian Institute of Criminology, pp.35-42.Braithwaite argues there has been a modest shift in Australia and New Zealand from an oppressive criminal justice system to a more republican engagement of citizens in the criminal justice process. Conferencing is a key element in this ideological shift. Victims and offenders, with their various supporters, meet with a conference facilitator to discuss the offense and how best to resolve the problem. This promotes reintegration and discourages stigmatic forms of shaming. Such a criminal justice procedure can signify that the community takes crime seriously, without the harm that characterizes the alternative rituals of courtroom trials, formal punishment and incarceration.