Source: (2001) The Howard League Magazine 19 (November): 6-7John Muncie asserts that transatlantic policy transfers in both social and criminal justice matters have become increasingly common in the past decade. He points to a number of policies and practices that have been transported from the United States to England and Wales. These include, for example, zero tolerance policing, electronic monitoring, mandatory minimum sentencing, and increasing criminalization of youth offending. In contrast, says Muncie, Europe has not moved toward a dramatic ârepenalizationâ? of young offending as witnessed in America and in England and Wales. Muncie highlights certain youth justice policies, practices, and reforms in several European counties; he adds to these by pointing out restorative justice approaches to juvenile justice in New Zealand, Australia, and Scotland. In sum, he argues that England should no longer follow Americaâs lead in juvenile justice.