Source: (1981) Universitetet I Oslo. Down loaded 19 May 03.A member of the law faculty at the University of Oslo, Nils Christie wrote this little book on pain, which was published in 1981. More specifically, he reflected on pain with respect to the imposition of punishment within the institution of law. He argued that this imposition of punishment meant the infliction of pain, intended as pain. As this infliction of pain is dissonant with other values as such kindness and forgiveness, attempts have been made to hide the basic character of punishment. Hence, a principal aim of Christie in this book was to describe, expose, and evaluate those attempts to rationalize and justify the infliction of pain through punishment. In this regard, Christie contended for taking a moral stand in favor of severe restrictions on the use of intentional pain as a means of social control.