Source: (2003) Paper submitted for the XIth International Symposium on Victimology. 13-18 July 2003, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Downloaded 21 August 2003.In this paper, Jean-Luc Domenech surveys the development and current status of victim services in Europe. Victim support services in Europe came into being in the middle 1970s in the United Kingdom and Germany. Within a decade such services developed significantly in those countries and also were initiated in several other countries. In their various contexts, certain similar challenges had to be faced, including recruitment and training of staff, standards of service, development of policies and legislation, and more. Eventually national organizations began to look for international cooperation at the European level. Domenech traces these developments in victim services in both individual countries and in Europe as a whole (in terms of the European Union).