Source: (2000) Paper presented at the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. Vienna, Austria, 10-17 April. Rome: Ministry of Justice.This paper presents the status of mediation in the Italian criminal justice system. The first part of the paper surveys penal mediation with respect to juveniles, including guidelines and objectives for penal mediation in the juvenile sector. Theoretical approaches to mediation are described, as is the legal framework. Actual experiences regarding the use of penal mediation are also discussed. The second part of the paper deals with the extension of criminal mediation to ordinary justice (i.e., cases involving adult offenders). Topics covered in this section are the following: the legal framework; the current trend in the protection of victims; mediation and reparation in the experience of law-enforcement officers; and mediation and reparation with respect to the Justice of the Peace.