Source: (2003) In John Torpey, ed., Politics and the past: on repairing historical injustices. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Pp. 193-215.Africa has long been the object of attention from European countries and the United States, often to the detriment of Africa countries and people. The slave trade, colonialism, and other forms of Western incursion in Africa have caused considerable damage and suffering. In this context, Rhoda Howard-Hassmann presents some "very preliminary thoughts" on the question of reparations for sub-Saharan Africa. Such reparations could include -- among other possible actions --the issuance of acknowledgement, apology, and financial compensation. In addition to founding her argument on the historical record of Western injustices perpetrated against African countries and people, Howard-Hassmann bases her position on the moral integrity of Africans. By moral integrity she means that African people and groups possess moral value and competence. Acknowledgement of the moral integrity of an individual involves acknowledgement of how that person can be damaged or hurt by past wrongs. With all of this in mind, Howard-Hassmann pursues her line of reasoning through examination of colonialism and underdevelopment, history as racial discrimination, respect for universal human rights, and issues of acknowledgement, apology, and financial compensation.