Source: (2009) Australia and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference 2009: Conference Proceedings. Pg. 101-110.Under the Migration Act (1958), being imprisoned for a criminal offence can constitute grounds for visa cancellation, even for people who have spent most of their lives in Australia. ‘Non-citizens’ who have had their visas cancelled in this way are liable to detention on completion of their prison sentence; form a significant proportion of the current immigration detainee population and are routinely deported. This paper examines the punitive implications of this policy including: its impact on the parole process; the institutionalisation of double punishment; and the multiple mechanisms of disempowerment operating through the detention regime. While this is still work in progress, the paper argues that criminal convictions do not justify detention and removal, and suggests a framework for future research. (Authors abstract).