Source: (2012) Dispute Resolution Magazine. 18(winter): 10-13.

Techniques range from intimate, small-group dialogues to large televised forums involving hundreds or even thousands of participants. Evolving communication technologies are sometimes integrated into these programs to overcome barriers of scale, geography and time. To help people navigate the range of public engagement approaches available to them, the National Coalition for Dialogue & Deliberation (NCDD) identified four main streams of engagement based on the primary purpose community leaders, public officials and others have for using these processes to engage citizens: exploration, conflict transformation, decision making, and collaborative action. (excerpt)