Source: (2006) From "Crime and Justice: A Guide to Criminology." 3rd Edition: 439-64. Law Book Company.

Crime control and justice policies have always been varied, but as O’Malley says (1999, p 176), there now exists an unprecedented “state of penological inconsistency”. Alternative justice forms, such as meetings between victims and offenders, or magistrates who take an active interest in helping defendants, sit alongside mandatory sentences for certain repeat offenders. Put simply, policies of inclusion sit alongside those of exclusion in any one country, and countries vary in the degree to which their policies are tipped more toward inclusion than exclusion. This chapter reviews and compares three innovative and inclusion-oriented approaches to justice: restorative justice, contemporary forms of Indigenous justice, and therapeutic jurisprudence. (author's abstract)