Source: (1997) In Odyssey 21(5). October. South Africa: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. Downloaded 2 June 2004.Violent crime and its effects are widespread concerns in South Africa. Many propose severely punitive responses to crime. Andie Miller sees such responses as only perpetuating the violence. Instead, creative, non-violent measures must be found, individually and institutionally, to reduce and even end the violence of South Africa’s past and its contemporary crime scene. To illustrate, Miller points to diversionary programs such as family group conferencing, and to victim offender mediation programs. These are part of a growing shift from retributive justice to restorative justice.