Source: (1997) Talk given at the Karpeles Museum, Santa Barbara. The Institute of Cooperative Communication Skills. Downloaded 22 June 2004.Gene Knudsen Hoffman is a Quaker peace activist, teacher, pastoral counselor, and writer. She has made many journeys to the Middle East to hear the experiences of those living in that region. In this talk she reflects on the nature and meaning of holocausts (mass murder) with the purpose of seeking foundations to prevent holocausts in the future. In particular she considers the Nazi holocaust against Jewish people and what has been done in response to that enormous evil. This leads to discussion of Aktion Sunezeichen (a German organization committed to charitable works as signs of atonement for the Nazi holocaust), the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in post-apartheid South Africa, and restorative justice efforts.