Source: (2004) In Foblets, Marie-Claire, and Trutz von Trotha, eds., Healing the Wounds: Essays on the Reconstruction of Societies after War. Portland, Oregon: Hart Publishing. Pp. 85-108.Northern Mali (Mali is in western Africa) consists of three regions. Pressures on natural resources and demands for autonomy in northern Mali led to a rebellion and civil war in the early 1990s. While this abated after a time due to a negotiated settlement, the peace agreement disintegrated and civil war resumed, ending only in 1995 with a new peace pact among the groups in conflict. In the area west of Tombouctou, one of the regions in the north and the region most affected by the conflict, the end of war and the beginning of a new civil order were assisted by the Programme Mali-Nord. This is a Malian-German bilateral program created in 1993 to help the people in the region develop this new civil order, as well as new economic foundations. Henner Papiendieck and Barbara Rocksloh-Papendieck have managed this program since its beginning. In this chapter they discuss the program, their experiences and lessons learned from it, and results of the program for the Malian people. Specifically, they describe the beginnings of the program, efforts to promote reconciliation among differing peoples, and the economics of peace in northern Mali.