Source: (2007) Policy Advisory Group Seminar Report. Vineyard Hotel, Cape Town, South Africa. 17 and 18 May 2007. Capetown, South Africa: Centre for Conflict Resolution.

The development of peacebuilding initiatives in Africa in the last decade is reflected in the proliferation of numerous models of transitional justice. Recent experiments on the continent range from judicial to nonjudicial approaches, including United Nations (UN) tribunals, “hybrid” criminal courts, domestic trials, and truth and reconciliation commissions (TRCs). War crimes tribunals and TRCs have been in operation in Africa since 1974, with varying degrees of success. At an international level, the Hague-based International Criminal Court (ICC), which came into existence in 2002, was established as a court of last resort to prosecute offences where national courts failed or were unable to respond. An analysis of the variety and relative success or failure of these approaches can add much to our current and future understandings of peacebuilding in Africa. A key concern for the Cape Town seminar was to analyse the dilemmas posed by peace without justice, as opposed to justice without peace. (excerpt)