Source: (1992) In: H. Messmer and H.-U. Otto (eds.), Restorative Justice on Trial: Pitfalls and Potentials of Victim-Offender Mediation: International Research Perspectives. Dordrecht, NETH: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 179-196.Penal and community mediation are recent phenomena in France. All penal mediation experiments conform to a management perspective. This perspective crystallized around the procedures for the handing over of cases from the prosecution service to the victim aid group or probation group. These experiments are not intended to create a system of "parallel justice" or "second-class justice," but to set up a socialization forum. The analysis of mediation techniques suggests that there exist several techniques of mediation. A typology of mediation is presented, distinguishing "direct" from "indirect" forms of mediation.