Source: (2014) The George Washington International Law Review. 46:243-303.

Modern slavery is defined as human exploitation over a period of time effectuated through coercion, fraud, or trickery. An estimated 12.3 million people worldwide are held in some form of modern slavery, including forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, and sexual servitude. Children and women bear the brunt of modern slavery. Divided into three stages-trafficking, exploitation, and postconflict-modern slaveiy has attracted much scholarly interest in recent years. However, relatively little scholarly attention has been given to the postconflict stage. This Article attempts to initiate such discussion by drawing upon the reparative framework crafted in the years since the Holocaust by myself and other international redress scholars. Redress scholars study postconflict justice and human development. The reparative framework that comes out of that scholarship consists of criminal and civil redress models and their concomitant commitments to retributive, compensatory, restorative, or redistributive justice in the aftermath of atrocities like the Holocaust, Apartheid, the Comfort Women, Japanese-American internment, and American slavery. My ambition in this Article is to extend that human-rights perspective and analysis to the postconflict stage of modern slavery.Specifically, the Article focuses on the largest and most vulnerable victim groups-children and women-in two very different and difficult contexts: the former child soldiers in African countries and sexual slavery in Thailand. With respect to the former child soldiers, the Article argues that retributive justice is an unjust postconflict resolution of the atrocities committed by these perpetrators because they are also victims. Retributive justice also collides with restorative justice, the highest development of humanity in the aftermath of an atrocity. Compensatory justice is similarly rejected on grounds that it is largely unachievable and too backward looking to meet the forward-looking needs of the society as a whole. The Article opts for restorative justice under the "atonement model, " not only because the former child soldiers are both perpetrators and victims, but also because they should be reunited with their families and reintegrated into their societies. (author's abstract)