Source: (1995) Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 34(1):19-44.

This paper argues that, in the aftermath of punishment in the community and the managerial culture which ensued, a fundamental reconceptualization of probation values is needed. Although the most drastic proposals for the punishment in the community strategy were not immediately implemented, the ethos and organization of the probation service underwent rapid change and led to a lowering of morale among basic grade officers. This paper discusses issues related to the subsequent modernization of the service, including the limits of genericism, the rise of benevolent corporatism, and the values of anticustodialism, restorative justice, and community safety.