Source: (2005) In Wanda D. McCaslin, ed., Justice as Healing: Indigenous Ways. Writings on Community Peacemaking and Restorative Justice from the Native Law Centre. St. Paul, MN: Living Justice Press. Pp. 65-67.

"Today, all fines are paid to the Crown. The victims and their families are forgotten in the modern machinery of the criminal justice system. The ideological constructs of the criminal justice system have evolved slowly from penance to punishment, which continues to be the major factor in sentencing principles. However, the dominant underlying motivation remains economic." (excerpt)