Source: (2001) Policing and Society. 11:359-382.

During the most recent three decades of conflict in Northern Ireland, the linitations of the Royal Ulster Cibstabulary's (RUC) policing of local working class communities has seen the parallel evolution of violent paramilitary systems of 'punishment attacks' and banishments. This paper explores the factors which underpin such punishment. It considers the relationship to the formal justice system and offers a critical analysis of the potential for Restorative Justice Theory and practice to provide non-violent community based alternatives to such violent punishments.