Source: (2008) In, John F. Wozniak, et. al, editors. Transformative Justice: Critical and Peacemaking Themes Influenced by Richard Quinney. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 191-206.

The horrifying, heartbreaking experiences that incarcerated mothers live with, or re-live in prison, often overwhelm intentions for good parenting. Thus, prison programming that addresses only parenting skills, or which narrowly focuses on specific occupational skills will fail to address the needs of incarcerated women. Comprehensive approaches, that treat addiction, depression, occupational skills, and parenting offer the most affective options. Women's incarceration stems not only from a conviction for a specific crime, but also from an array of social problems that affect women as a group and which permeate many facets of American culture. As Quinney tells us, what has gone on before the crime tells us more than the act itself. The life patterns of incarcerated women poignantly illustrate Quinney's point. Humane, supportive, therapeutic response to women offenders would also address what has gone on before the criminal act. (excerpt)