Source: (1996) European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 4 (4): 67-85.Walgrave and Aertsen note that Braithwaite indicated in early 1996 that he might replace the term "reintegrative shaming" with "restorative shaming." This leads Walgrave and Aertsen to ask whether "reintegration" and "restorative" are interchangeable or at least complementary. Or, in fact, are they different? To answer these questions, they examine the paradigm of restorative justice, and the concepts of shame as an active process and shame as an emotion. Using examples from Belgium, Walgrave and Aertsen consider shaming and restoration in the mediation process. Additionally, they reflect on the issue of coercion in relation to shaming and restorative justice.