Source: (2011) e Annual Review of Interdisciplinary Justice Research. 2:35-54.

The potential of an apology as the beginning of a powerful restorative process is borne out by the frequent public de- mands from those wronged in various ways for an apology as one crucial step in achieving justice and undoing the harm that has been done. #e reconciliatory potential of this pro- cess has also been highlighted by restorative justice advocates as an important and powerful aspect of making amends and restoring relations a$er the harm is done (Schneider, 2000, Alexander, 2006). However, the other side of this process is perhaps more frequently visible, a communicative action de- signed also (or perhaps primarily) to restore the apologizer’s self-image and demonstrate the apologizer to be a worthy moral agent. Allan (2007) notes the distinction between an exclusively self focused (what I term here as “rehabilitative”) and self-other focused (what I will refer to as “restorative”) apology and the confusion in much of the scholarly literature about this distinction1. Towner (2009) also distinguishes between two categories of “apologetic rhetoric” – apologia statements designed to restore self-image and reconciliatory apologies designed to facilitate healing. (excerpt)