Source: (2005) Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate Faculty in Criminal Justice, City University of New York.The project identifies parallel pitfalls and shared qualities in social change movements that earnestly struggle, but fail, to effect substantive benevolent penal change. Findings show that various properties consistently found in their expression contribute to, or ensure, a recurrently regressive outcome – thus accounting for how collective action aimed at reducing and substantially altering the punishment system ultimately grows and embeds it. The study examines the latest wave of benevolent reform, restorative justice, and demonstrates that this cycle is again underway. In addition, the analysis asserts that the United States’ persistent penal reform rut is not inevitable and can be interrupted and redirected. Author's abstract.