Source: (1989) Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Dissertation Abstracts International. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 301p.

Current restitution programs seriously limit eligible offenders, usually admitting primarily property and first time offenders and excluding minority offenders. This study examined 605 adult offenders tried by a Philadelphia Common Pleas Court judge between 1974 and 1984 who received sentences of incarceration, probation with restitution, or probation. In 29\% of the cases the judge imposed a restitution sentence. No differences between the incarceration group and the restitution group with regard to violent offenses, weapon used, or the victim's injuries were found. The policy implications are discussed.