Source: (1990) Crime and Justice Network Newsletter. Oct 1990 - Mar 1991. p7. Dowloaded 20 January 2005.As Howard Zehr observes at the outset of this article, a recurrent question about victim offender reconciliation programs (VORP) programs raises the issue of recidivism. Do offenders who participate in VORP and make restitution re-offend? Are re-offending or recidivism rates higher, the same, or lower for such offenders? In response, Zehr reviews findings from a study conducted by Laurie Ervin and Anne Schneider (found in Criminal Justice, Restitution, and Reconciliation, ed. Burt Galaway and Joe Hudson, Criminal Justice Press, 1990). Ervin and Schneider found that restitution programs, especially when part of well structured VORPs, do appear to reduce recidivism rates by a measurable amount.