Source: (2003) Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference On Restorative Justice. Centre for Restorative Justice. 1-4 June. Vancouver BC. Downloaded 16 June 2003.Howlett begins with the premise that the Canadian criminal justice system needs professional and effective restorative justice programs, such as victim offender mediation, family counseling, and community liaison services. These kinds of programs help to provide caring and humane qualities in a relatively unsympathetic justice system. Yet, he argues, the justice system is not amenable to this sort of change. Hence, Howlett asserts that the general public will never take restorative justice seriously without a strategic plan of organization. Successful organization and application of restorative justice occur through active community groups and supportive government departments. With all of this in view, Howlett looks at the lack of autonomous communities in Canada and where, in a structured framework, restorative justice principles should be applied.