Source: (2013) International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 57(9):1051–1053.

As attempts were made to deal with crime, to improve offender treatment, and to help the victims of crime, the restorative justice approach evolved. Albert Eglash (1977) and Howard Zehr (1990) were among its pioneers. Eglash was primarily concerned with the offender (restorative justice and restitution) and Zehr with victim– offender reconciliation. Even though with ups and downs, this philosophical approach to punishment, based on healing and the reconciliation of the victim and the offender, generated a deep interest among sociocriminological scholars and laid the foundation for what has become a restorative justice movement throughout the world. Approximately 80 countries are reported to have such programs (Van Ness, 2005). The implementation of the programs is usually conditioned by the culture and traditions of the country where it is employed. (excerpt)