Source: (2006) Journal of Social Issues (special issue 62(2)).

Restorative justice has been conceived in the literature in two broadways. One is a process conception; the other is a values conception. The process conception is characterized by a process that brings together all parties affected by harm or wrongdoing (e.g., offenders, and their families, victims, and their families, other members of the community, and professionals). These parties meet, often in a circle, to discuss what happened, how they were affected and come to some agreement as to what should be done to right any wrongs suffered. The values conception is characterized by a set of values, or principles, that distinguish restorative justice from traditional punitive state justice. The former values healing and restoration of all affected, the latter values accountability to the state through punishment. This volume examines restorative justice in the context of its contribution to advancing civil society through the lens of institutions that are intermediate between the individual and the state. (excerpt)