Source: (1998) American Behavioral Scientist 41(6): 768-813.

An essay and review traces the roots of the new reintegrative and restorative justice theories, as well as the success of current preliminary applications of these theories. Because the traditional and opposing theories of the retributive paradigm and the treatment model offer only a simplistic choice between helping or hurting offenders, these approaches fail to address adequately the needs of communities and victims. In place of these 2 paradigms, a new model, based on reintegrative or restorative justice, is suggested. This new theory, based on specific cultural approaches to crime found in New Zealand, Japan and elsewhere, seeks to address the needs of communities and victims through apology and reparation, a process intended to lead to the reintegration of offenders into society.