Source: (2013) In, David J. Cornwell, John Blad, and Martin Wright, eds., Civilising criminal justice: An international restorative justice agenda for penal reform. pp. 429-450.Without going into the debate about the diversification or fragmentation of the model of justice, we would like to focus our analysis on the reasons for the poor development of the principles of RJ in France and secondly on its progress and particularly its institutionalisation. To explain these differences, we have to stay away from purely cultural or universalist approaches and adopt the view that there is a societal effect that requires us to take account of the specific systems of social order proper to each country. As we have been able to show in earlier research, France constitutes a good example of the necessity to take account of a societal effect when explaining the differences in the acceptance and implementation of the principles of RJ.