Source: (2000) Paper presented at the United Nations Crime Congress, Ancillary Meeting on Implementing Restorative Justice in the International Context. Vienna, Austria, 10-17 April.O'Connell argues that current criminal justice systems do not work and that they must fundamentally change, with restorative justice providing the best hope. He realistically observes, however, how difficult it is to make substantial, durable change. In this paper, then, O'Connell discusses certain models that offer hope for manifesting key restorative principles in the ideal of just outcomes for those involved in and affected by the harm of crime. He focuses in particular on change that will reduce the role of the state in policing through the development of restorative policing centered in communities.