Source: (2001) Paper presented at the Restorative and Community Justice: Inspiring the Future conference, held in Winchester, England, 28-31 March.

An officer with the Essex police in England, Ian Carter seeks a clear, manageable, holistic way to understand and apply restorative justice to crime within and alongside a statutory framework. With the emergence of restorative justice ideas about two decades ago, individual models of restorative practice have proliferated, to a bewildering degree in many respects, and sometimes with less than positive results. This is not to detract from restorative justice, Carter remarks, but to note a problem and to pursue a fruitful way forward in trying to understand and apply restorative justice. Hence, he surveys work done to simplify (�reduce�) models of restorative practice into five principal types. Then he goes further by trying to simplify the use of restorative justice even more by grouping areas for application of restorative justice into three, fundamental categories relating to point of entry for interventions, origination of conflict, and outcomes.