Source: (1997) (Tms.?). Netherlands.

Restorative justice programs have evolved in a range of practice methods that include mediation, reparation, compensation, community service, victim awareness education, and shaming and reintegration. A survey of probation services in England, Wales, and Ireland, and social work services in Scotland indicates concepts of restorative justice receive considerable discussion and attention but their actual impact on practice is limited. There is a clear hierarchy of responses to varying concepts of restorative justice that is based on victim awareness, reparation (indirect and direct), mediation, compensation, and shaming. The higher the concepts are in the hierarchy, the wider the level of acceptance and incorporation into practice. Therefore, victim awareness is widely accepted and is being adopted at various stages of the criminal justice process, whereas shaming is either not fully understood or rejected. Restorative justice practices are described as they are followed in pre-court programs, bail arrangements, and sentence- based programs. Abstract courtesy of National Criminal Justice Reference Service, www.ncjrs.org.