Source: (2002) Crime Victims Report 5 (January/February): 90-92.

Describing the birth of restorative justice, Immarigeon observes that it has diverse roots in reform proposals and practices in the latter half of the 1900s, as, for example, in the United States. These theoretical and practical roots include efforts to define restorative justice and increased use of alternatives to incarceration in the 1980s. Immarigeon also points to the development of victim-offender reconciliation programs in Canada and the United States. All of this indicates the expansion of restorative justice from informal, localized initiatives to government policy and practice.