Source: (2005) Public Organization Review: A Global Journal. 5: 375–389.

Restorative justice programs, which attempt to reintegrate offenders into society by building and strengthening interpersonal relationships, may provide the juvenile justice system with an effective option for female offenders. If women and men have different values, and women value connections with others while men value independence and autonomy [Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press], then programs that explicitly focus on strengthening social bonds may be compatible with the value orientation of women. However, research on the operation of the juvenile justice system has noted a history of gender bias, as traditional notions of gender roles were reinforced by juvenile justice system professionals. While restorative justice programs may be effective in reducing recidivism among female offenders, at the same time, the informal nature of these programs may lead to the reinforcement of traditional gender roles. (author's abstract)