Source: (2008) American Behavioral Scientist. 51(12): 1867-1901.

This article reviews discussions and case studies of indigenous peoples, especially American Indians (Lakota, Navajo, and Wampanoag), the Zapatista movement, Latin American examples (Mapuche, Guarani, and Miskito), the Adevasi in India, and the Maori, adding short sketches of Kurds in the Middle East, Pashtun in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and cases from Africa and southeast Asia to develop a general indigenous model, including social systems of decision making, economic distribution, land tenure system, and community relations. The authors present two such models, one on indigenous revitalization and another on the resistance to state domination and the forces of globalization, especially in respect to neoliberalism, and then the authors make an applied analysis toward indigenous peoples’ struggles globally.