Source: (2001) In Bringing restorative justice to adolescent substance abuse, ed. Kathryn G. Herr. Special issue of Youth & Society 33 (December), 169-198. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage PublicationsIn response to rising concern about youth crime in the 1980s and 1990s, many state and local jurisdictions enacted numerous changes in their juvenile justice systems. Many of the changes were designed to be more strict and punitive. At the same time, some sought changes aimed at preventive and rehabilitative efforts, specialized courts, and restorative justice programs. Butts and Mears see in all of this fundamental questions about what we want the juvenile justice system to be, and even whether we still want a juvenile justice system distinct from the adult justice system. In this context they look at the origins of juvenile justice, the new focus on punishment, rehabilitation, and prevention and early intervention. They then discuss emerging movements – such as community justice and restorative justice – that seek to transform the administration and organization of juvenile justice.