Source: (1998) Track Two 7(3): 18-20.

In dealing with gang violence, Pinnock argues that tough on crime initiatives do not have the desired effect. He suggests that government use the strength of gangs to create a new path for the offenders. By undergoing supervised and positive rites of passage, the gang members are able to fill the need to be recognized as an adult and earn respect. The programs that Pinnock describes include skills training, restitution, accountability, and other community building aspects.