Source: (2004) In Foblets, Marie-Claire, and Trutz von Trotha, eds., Healing the Wounds: Essays on the Reconstruction of Societies after War. Portland, Oregon: Hart Publishing. Pp. 109-143.In this chapter Georg Klute and Trutz von Trotha present a report on two wars in Africa and the processes which contributed to peace in each situation. One xe2x80x93 little known outside of francophone media in Europe xe2x80x93 was the war between the Tuareg of Mali and Niger and the central governments in Bamako (Mali) and Niamey (Niger). For the purposes of this chapter, Klute and von Trotha discuss primarily the conflict in Mali, not Niger. The other was a war within the war of the Mali Tuareg against the government of Mali. In essence, this was a kind of civil war between two rebel movements of the Malian Tuareg. This conflict was ignored by the outside world and by Mali itself. Even the Tuareg do not like to talk about it now. In reporting on these two wars and the relevant peace processes, Klute and von Trotha structure their observations and considerations into three sections: the first section consists of a short history of the second Tuareg rebellion in Mali; the second section, or part I, deals with how peace was achieved between the rebel movements in this rebellion, (i.e., the road from social rebellion to parasovereign chiefdom); and the third section, or part II, examines links between local peace processes and programs and peace processes initiated and conducted at the national level (i.e., the road from peace management to parasovereign peace).