Source: (2006) Journal of Social Issues. 62(2): 371-392.

The adverse effects of school bullying and victimization have been well documented; yet, there has been little theoretical development in understanding these heterogeneous behavior patterns. This study integrates three theories that support the practice of restorative justice in responding to school bullying: Scheff’s theory of unacknowledged shame,Braithwaite’s reintegrative shaming theory; and Tyler’s procedural justice theory. Specifically, the aim is to test the constructs of shame management (shame acknowledgment and shame displacement) and group value (pride, respect, and emotional group value) in explaining differences across four bullying status groups: nonbully/nonvictim, victim, bully, bully/victim. The results reveal different, but predictable, patterns of social and emotional disconnection from school across these groups. The importance of being emotionally intelligent when addressing bullying behaviors is discussed. (author's abstract)