Source: (2001) In Restorative justice and civil society, eds. Heather Strang and John Braithwaite, 211-221. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Bayley observes that, in most countries, the state has been the chief custodian of justice and security for years. This has begun to change recently through privatization and volunteerism â what he calls âthe multilateralization of security.â? Also, restorative justice theory has challenged the nature and practice of traditional criminal justice. Bayley connects these two challenges â one to the provenance of security, and the other to state-controlled justice â because both involve the relocation of authority to lower levels of government or to non-state structures (e.g., in communities). On this basis, Bayley discusses the potential of multilateralization and restorative justice, as well as key issues relating to them, with respect to the provenance of security and the character of justice.