Source: (2002) International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 46(1): 45-63.This article delineates the underlying philosophy and functions of social control in the Chinese society. This topic is particularly interesting because specific control functions are grounded in a unique macro-control system, which is totally different from that typical of Western countries. The article also scrutinizes the implications of labeling theory and reintegrative shaming theory, as they are elaborated in the West, and tests their sensitivity to cross-cultural differences. Although some caveats are in order, the evidence presented here tends to support the reintegrative shaming theory rather than labeling theory. Author's abstract.