Source: (1995) The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 28: 55-72.

This critical review examines the hypothesis that formal processing of juvenile offenders is inherently criminogenic. This thesis lacks empirical support, and has been reinforced by recent claims that community-based restorative sanctions, such as Community Aid Panels (CAPs) and Family Group Conferences (FGCs) are more effective in reducing juvenile recidivism than sending offenders to court. CAPs and FGCs are potentially onerous, stressful and/or humiliating, and they may involve significant constraints on the offender's liberty.