Source: (2003) Visiting Experts’ Papers from the 121st International Training Course, 20 May - 12 July 2002. Resource Material Series No. 61: 61-87. Tokyo, Japan: Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFEI). Downloaded 19 May 2004.

The techniques in enhancing community-based alternatives to incarceration are often divided into "front door policies" and "back door policies". Another way would be to distinguish measures to be applied (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the court proceedings. This presentation follows the latter logic, however, with some reservations: Firstly, measures which have similar names may be placed in different phases in different jurisdictions (for example community service). Secondly, many of the newly developed community sanctions fail to follow the logic of these three phases, because they can be applied either before, during or after the trial (for example restitution). (excerpt)

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