Source: (2003) Leiden Journal of International Law. 16: 115-133.The quest of extending the role of tribunals beyond its traditionalmission of justice to embrace the diffcult need of reconciliation after mass atrocities has revealed itself to be challenging. This diffculty is most clearly illustrated inthe case of the ICTR, whosemission is to bring about Rwandan reconciliation through justice. The implementation of thismission that was doubted by some members of the Security Council, including the Rwanda itself, at the time of setting up the ICTR is becoming a diffcult experiment, with positive results but also with some negative outcomes capable even of undermining the aimed objective of national reconciliation. The problem of co-operation between the Tribunal and Rwanda, the diffculties of circumscribing individual responsibilitywithout condemning thewhole community, the problem of singling out and punishing some criminals and leaving the rest unpunished, the abuse of pardon and clemency, and Finally the absence of the victim in a criminal process pretending to restore his situation are some of the diffcult problems hampering the proclaimed mission of reconciliation assigned to the ICTR. This article is an attempt to analyse these problems and their impact on national reconciliation in Rwanda. (author's abstract).