Source: (1998) In, Beata Czarnecka-Dzialuk and Dobroncha Wojcik, eds., Juvenile Offender-Victim Mediation. Warszawa: Oficyna Naukowa. Pp. 15-35

Martin Wright begins this chapter with the observation that restorative justice is not an “all or nothingâ€? process. There can be degrees of restorativeness even within existing retributive systems. Moreover, restoration does not have to be ordered and accomplished through the criminal law. With these points in mind, he identifies in this essay some of the origins of restorative justice, with particular focus on the convergence of concern for the offender and the victim. He describes early initiatives in victim-offender mediation in Canada and the United States, shows how victim-offender mediation is taking root in various ways in different European countries, and indicates how restorative and communitarian practices are reviving in Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. The final part of his paper deals with key features of restorative justice, some partially restorative measures, ways of promoting restorative justice, and conditions to be met if restorative justice is to fulfill its promise.