Source: (2003) Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. 1(2):128-155.Across the nation, serious and chronic juvenile offenders are increasingly being tried as adults in criminal court and incarcerated in adult correctional facilities. This trend raises important questions for policy makers. To what extent do trials in criminal courts and incarceration in adult prisons promote or inhibit community protection and the accountability and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders? This article discusses the legal consequences of adjudication in criminal court and offers a comprehensive review of research findings on the deterrent effects of transfer laws, conviction and sentencing patterns and recidivism rates in juvenile versus criminal courts, and conditions and programming in juvenile versus adult correctional facilities. The implications of these research findings for juvenile justice policies on adjudicating and sentencing juveniles as adults and directions for future research are discussed.