Source: (1996) European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 4 (4): 21-43.

In tracing the evolution of restorative justice in Britain, Marshall focuses on the development and application of practices, not theory. He maintains that this is how restorative justice got started in Britain. In this vein, he points to victim-offender mediation, beginning with efforts in the 1980s. In the contemporary scene, two models of mediation are dominant: the social work model; and the independent mediation model. A third model is emerging xe2x80x93 conferencing. Somewhat skeptical of the value of theory, he nevertheless notes that in recent years theory relating to mediation has been advanced, under terms such as xe2x80x9crestorative justice,xe2x80x9d xe2x80x9creparative justice,xe2x80x9d and xe2x80x9crelational justice.xe2x80x9d Marshall discusses deficiencies he perceives in restorative justice (under which he includes the other terms). Following that, he advances a definition of what he thinks restorative justice really is.