Source: (2004) Visiting Experts' Papers, 123rd International Senior Seminar, Resource Material Series No. 63, pp. 37-47. Tokyo: United Nations Asia and Far East Institute For the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. Downloaded 10 February 2005.

A new Western wave of restorative justice began with victim-offender mediation programmes in Canada and the United States in the 1970s. Then at the end of the 1980s family group conferences more like the one used in the story of Hiroshi were first developed in New Zealand. Since then there has been a proliferation of new and varied models of restorative justice. My contention is that the defining thing they have in common is that they are a process where all the stakeholders affected by a crime can come together to discuss the consequences of the crime and what can be done to right the wrong. (excerpt)

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