Source: (2004) Paper presented at "New Frontiers in Restorative Justice: Advancing Theory and Practice", Centre for Justice and Peace Development, Massey University at Albany, New Zealand, 2-5 December.

Comprising seven domains for intervention, the Hikairo Rationale is so named because of the way peaceful resolution was reached following intertribal encounters on Mokoia Island in 1823. According to Stafford (1967), the Ngati-Rangiwewehi Chief, Hikairo, spoke and acted with such mana and influence that the illustrious Ngapuhi chief, Hongi Hika, declared that calmness and powerfulness were not incompatible notions. On this occasion, Hikairo's assertive dialogue, fundamental assurances and simple sincerity brought about a change of attitude and behaviour. The Hikairo approach is appropriate for working with both Maori and non-Maori students and teachers, even though its guiding values and metaphors come from within a Maori worldview. The traditional Maori value of "aroha" (love) has a very real place in the model. Aroha does not depict a "soft" approach. In the context of discipline, aroha connotes cooperation, understanding, reciprocity and warmth. The Hikairo programme has these qualities in abundance and is simultaneously assertive. Abstract courtesy of the Centre for Justice and Peace Development, Massey University,