Source: (2009) Victims and Offenders. 4(1): 1-24.

The present study is a panel-design study with the primary goal of examining the effect of a restorative justice program (Victim Impact Training [VIT]) on the development of guilt, shame, and empathy among offenders. The MANCOVA results show no overall significant differences between offenders who participated in the VIT program on their development of guilt, shame, and empathy over time. However, ANCOVA results indicate significant relationships among gender, program type, guilt, shame, and empathy. These findings and their implications are discussed. (author's abstract)